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Table of Contents for
The Language of Canadian Politics: A Guide to Important Terms and Concepts, 4th Edition by John McMenemey

A

Aboriginal rights. See Land claims and settlements (Native; Aboriginal); Native (First Nations) self-government

Access to Information Act (Canada). See Freedom of information

Accountability

Act (statute)

Activists (party)

Administration (public)

Administrative (executive) federalism

Administrative law

Administrator (of Canada)

Aeronautics Case (1932). See Treaty power

Affirmative (Positive) action

Agence de la francophonie (Agency for the French-Speaking Community) See Community (the Francophone; La Francophonie)

Agenda (of meeting; public/private)

Ambassador

Amending formulae (constitutional). See Constitution Act, 1867, and subsequently amended; General amending formula (Constitution Act, 1982)

Amendment (legislative; constitutional)

Anti-Terrorism Act, 2001

Appointment power

Aspect Doctrine (constitution)

Associate / Assistant deputy minister

Asymmetrical federalism

Auditor General

B

Backbencher

Balance of power (legislative)

Ballot

Bandwagon effect

Bank of Canada (central bank)

Bar (of the House)

Bellwether riding

Bicameral

Bicultural cleavage

Big M Drug Mart Case (1985)

Bilingualism and biculturalism

Bill. See Act (statute)

Bill 63; 22; 101; 178; 86 (Quebec)

Bill of Rights (Recognition and Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms Act, Canada, 1960)

Bloc Québécois

Block payments (grants)

Borrowing power

British connection

British North America Act. See Constitution Act, 1867, and subsequently amended

Brokerage politics

Budget and budgetary process

Bureaucracy

By-election

C

CPAC (Cable Public Affairs Channel)

Cabinet

Cabinet organization

Cadre parties

Calgary Declaration (Framework; 1997)

Campaign (election)

Canada Act, 1982 (U.K.)

Canada Assistance Plan (CAP, 1966)

Canada Clause (Preamble, Charlottetown Accord, 1992)

Canada Council

Canada Gazette

Canada Health and Social Transfer (CHST)

Canada Labour Code

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC)

Canada (Quebec) Pension Plan (CPP, QPP, 1966)

Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (1989)

Canadian Alliance party

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Radio-Canada; CBC)

Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982)

Canadian Human Rights Commission (Act; Chief 35 Commissioner)

Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA)

Canadian Judicial Council

Canadian Parliamentary Guide

Canadian Press / Broadcast News

Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC)

Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS)

Candidate

Canvass

Capital crime and punishment

Career public (civil) service

Carter v. Saskatchewan (A.-G.) (1991)

Caucus

Censure

Census

Central agency

Central bank. See Bank of Canada (central bank)

Centralization (decentralization)

Centrist

Charlottetown Accord (1992)

Charter groups; interests

Charter of Rights and Freedoms (Canada, 1982). See Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982)

Charter of the French Language (Quebec)

Chief Electoral Officer (Elections Canada)

Chief Justice

Chief of staff (principal secretary)Chief of the Defence Staff (Vice-Chief; Deputy Chief)

Citizen

Civil law (Civil Code; Code Civil)

Civil liberties

Civil service

Clarity bill (on secession from Confederation)

Class cleavage

Clawback

Clerk of the House of Commons (of the Senate)

Clerk of the Privy Council

Closure

Coalition government

Collective (cabinet/ministerial) responsibility

Collectivism

Combines (anti-combines legislation; competition policy)

Commission (board, agency, tribunal)

Commission for Environmental Co-operation (NAEC; NAFTA)

Commission of inquiry (judicial)

Commissioner of Official Languages (language ombudsman)

Committee of the Whole (Supply; Ways and Means)

Common Law

Commonwealth (The British...of Nations)

Communications Security Establishment (CSE)

Community (the Francophone; La Francophonie)

Compact theory of Confederation

Competition policy. See Combines (anti-combines legislation; competition policy)

Comptroller General of Canada

Concurrent majority. See Double majority

Concurrent powers

Conditional grants (special-purpose transfer payments)

Confederation

Confederation of Regions party (COR)

Conference of First Ministers

Conference of Ministers (of Education, Finance, etc.)

Conference of Provincial First Ministers

Confidence (of the House; Chamber of...)

Conflict of interest

Consensus

Conscription

Conservatism

Conservative Party of Canada

Consociational democracy

Consolidated Revenue Fund

Constituency (riding)

Constituency (riding) association

Constituent assembly

Constitution

Constitution Act, 1867, and subsequently amended

Constitutional Act, 1791 (U.K.)

Constitutional amendments. See Amendment (legislative; constitutional); Constitution Act, 1867, and subsequently amended “Consultative mechanisms” (forums and reports on constitutional reform)

Consumer Price Index (CPI)

Continentalism

Contracting (opting) out

Controverted election

Convention (constitutional). See Custom, convention and usage

Convention (party)

Co-operative Commonwealth Federation (CCF)

Co-operative federalism

Council of Atlantic Premiers

Council of Maritime Premiers. See Council of Atlantic Premiers

Council of the Federation

Count (election), official and unofficial

Courts. See Judicial system (judiciary)

Criminal Code of Canada

Crossing the floor

Crown

Crown corporation

Crown prerogatives

Cultural duality

Custom, convention and usage

D

Declaratory power

Delegate theory of representation

Delegated power

Department (of government)

Deputy minister

Deregulation

Direct (indirect) taxation

Disallowance

Discretionary power

Dispute settlement mechanism

Dissolution of Parliament (the legislature)

Distinct society clause

Division of the House

Division (distribution) of powers

Dominion (of Canada; government; status; Day)

Dominion-provincial conferences

Double majority

Duff Doctrine (constitution)

E

Economic nationalism

Economic union of Canada

Electoral Boundaries Readjustment Act (redistribution of legislative seats)

Electoral law (controls, subsidies)

Electoral system

Elites

Emergencies Act (Canada, 1988; emergency powers)

Emergency power

Employment equity. See Equity legislation

Employment Insurance (EI)

Entrenchment, constitutional

Enumeration (of powers)

Enumeration (of voters)

Environmentalism

Equality rights. See Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms (1982); Equity legislation

Equalization grants (unconditional transfer payments)Equity legislation

Established Programs Financing (EPF)

Estimates

Ethics Commissioner (Senate Ethics Officer)

Executive, the

Executive (administrative) federalism

Executive assistant, ministerial (chief of staff; exempt staff)

Executive Council

Extraterritoriality

F

Federal Court

Federal-provincial conferences

Federal-Provincial Fiscal Arrangements and Established Programs Financing Act. See Federal-provincial tax-sharing agreements (fiscal federalism)

Federal-provincial tax-sharing agreements (fiscal federalism)

Federalism

Filibuster

Finance, Department (minister) of

Financial Administration Act (Canada)

First Ministers Conference. See Conference of First Ministers

First-past-the-post electoral system

Fiscal federalism

Fiscal policy

FLQ Crisis. See October (FLQ) Crisis (1970)

Fragment (splinter) parties

Franchise (La) Francophonie

Free trade

Free vote

Freedom of information

Fulton-Favreau Formula (1964)

G

G-8 countries, meeting of

Gay and lesbian rights

Gender politics (gap)

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (the GATT)

General amending formula (Constitution Act, 1982)

Geographic cleavage

Gerrymander

Globalization (globalism)

Goods and Services (ad valorem, value-added) Tax (GST)

Government (public) bills

Governor General

Governor Generals warrants

Governor-in-council

Green (coloured) paper

Grit (Clear Grit)

Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

H

Hansard

Have (have-not) provinces

Head of state

High Commissioner (Commission)

Horizontal agencies

House leaders

House of Assembly

House of Commons

House of Commons committees

Hunter v. Southam (1984)

I

Immigration and Refugee Board Imperial conferences

Income tax

Indexing (de-indexing)

Indian Act

Indirect tax

Information Commissioner

Initiative (legislative)

Inner cabinet

Inter- (intra-)state federalism

Interdelegation Reference (Nova Scotia, 1951);...of legislative power

Interdepartmental committees

Interest groups

Intergovernmental committees

Interim supply, vote of

International Joint Commission (IJC)

Intra (ultra) vires

J

Judicial commission of inquiry. See Commissions of inquiry (judicial)

Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC)

Judicial review (interpretive; non-interpretive)

Judicial system (judiciary)

Jurisdiction, constitutional

K

King-Byng Dispute

Kitchen cabinet

L

Labour Conventions Reference (Attorney-General for Canada v. Attorney-General for Ontario, 1937)

Land claims and settlements (Native; Aboriginal)

Language ombudsman

Language rights

Law Commission of Canada

Leaders debates (election campaign)

Leadership conventions (selection)

Leadership review. See Leadership conventions (selection)

League for Social Reconstruction (LSR)

Left, political. See Class cleavage

Legislation (type; stages of)

Legislative Assembly

Legislative override. See Notwithstanding (non obstante) clause (Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, s.33)

Legislative process

Legislature

Letters Patent (1947)

Liberal party

Liberalism

Lieutenant-governor

Lieutenant-governor-in-council

Living tree Doctrine (constitution)

Lobby (-ist; -ing)

Lord Durhams Report

Lower Canada

Lower House

M

MHA/MLA/MNA/MPP

MP

Matres Chez Nous

Majority government

Malapportionment

Mandarin(ate)

Mandate

Manitoba Schools Question (and French language rights, 1890)

Maritime unionMarketing boards

Mass media of communication

Means test

Medicare

Meech Lake Accord (1987)

Members of parliament (MPs)

Merit system (in the public service)

Ministerial responsibility

Ministers (of the Crown)

Ministry

Ministry (minister) of state

Minority government

Monarchy (constitutional)

Monetary policy Money bills

Morgentaler, Smoling and Scott v. The Queen (1988)

Movement parties

Multiculturalism

N

National Assembly (Quebec)

National energy (oil) program (NEP)

National Housing Act (NHA)

National Policy (NP)

National Security Certificate (NSC)

Nationalistes, the

Nationalization

Native (First Nations) self-government

Natural resources

New Deal (R. B. Bennetts)

New Democratic party (NDP)

Nomination

Non-confidence motion. See Vote of no confidence (want-of-confidence motion)

Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)

North American Aerospace Defence Command (NORAD)

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) (1992)

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

Northwest (Riel) Rebellions

Notwithstanding (non obstante) clause (Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, s.33

Nunavut (Our land)

O

Oakes test (R. v. Oakes, [1986])

Occupational (functional) representation

October (FLQ) Crisis (1970)

Official agent (party; candidate)

Official Languages Act (Canada, 1969; 1988)

Official opposition

Official-party (recognized party) status

Official Secrets Act. See Security of Information Act (Canada)

Ombudsman

One-party (single-party) dominance

Opening of Parliament (of the legislature)

Operation Dismantle v. The Queen (1985)

Opposition Days

Opposition parties

Opting-out formula. See Contracting (opting) out

Order of Canada

Order (Notice) paper

Order-in-council

Organic law

Organization of American States (OAS)

P

Pairing

Parachuting (candidates)

Parliament of Canada

Parliamentary indemnity (salaries, allowances, and budgetary allocations)

Parliamentary privilege (immunities)

Parliamentary secretaries

Parliamentary-cabinet system

Parti Québécois (PQ)

Party discipline

Party system

Passage of legislation

Patriation of the constitution

Patronage

Peace, Order, and good Government

Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (Canada). See Privacy Act (Canada); Privacy Commissioner

Persons Case (Edwards v. A.-G. for Canada [1930])

Petition

Platform

Plebiscite. See Referendum

Plurality

Policy (-making; analysis; communities; instruments; public)

Political culture

Polling (election day)

Polling (public opinion)

Popular vote. See Electoral system

Populism

Pork barrel

Portfolio

Positive (negative) entitlement

Postmaterialism

Premier

Prerogative power

President of the Queens Privy Council for Canada

President of the Treasury Board

Press, the. See Mass media of communication; Press gallery

Press gallery

Pressure groups. See Interest groups

Prime minister

Prime Ministers Office (PMO)

Principal secretary. See Chief of staff (principal secretary)

Priorities and Planning Committee (P and P). See Inner cabinet

Privacy legislation (Canada); Privacy Commissioner

Private bills

Private member

Private members legislation (bills)

Privatization

Privy Council for Canada (the Queens)

Privy Council Office (PCO)

Progressive Conservative party

Progressive movement (party)

Property and Civil Rights in the Province

Proportional representation

Prorogation of Parliament

Provincial autonomy (rights)

Provincial (territorial) governments (legislatures)

Public Accounts Committee

Public bills

Public opinion

Public Safety Act, 2004

Public service (administration).

Public Service Commission

Q

Quasi-judicial decisions (power)Quebec Act, 1774 (U.K.)

Quebec Conference (Resolutions) (1864)

Quebec Protestant School Boards Case (A.-G. Quebec v. Quebec Association of Protestant School Boards [1984])

Quebec sign law

Queen, the. See Crown; Sovereign, the

Question period

Quiet Revolution

Quorum

R

Racism

Radio Reference Case (1932). See Treaty power

Radio-Canada

Ralliement des crditistes

Ratification

Readings

Recall

Reciprocity

Reconstruction party

Recorded (standing) vote

Red Tory (-ism)

Redistribution (electoral...of seats)

Redistributive policy

Reference case (constitutional)

Referendum

Reform party

Regina Manifesto

Regional disparities

Regional government

Regionalism

Regulation 17 (Ontario, 1913)

Regulatory agencies (regulations)

Remedial decree (litigation)

Remedial legislation

Renewed / Restructured federalism

Representation by population

Representative government

Representative (trustee) theory of representation

Reservation (of legislation)

Residual power

Resolution (of the House) (Motion)

Responsible government

Returning Officer (RO); Deputy Returning Officers (DROs)

Riding

Right, political. See Class cleavage

Rowell-Sirois Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations (1937–1940)

Royal assent

Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)

Royal commission

Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism (1963)

Royal Proclamation (1763)

Rule of law

Russell v. The Queen (1882)

S

Safe seat

Scandal (Pacific, Customs, Beauharnois, Sponsorship)

Scrum

Scrutineer

Secession Reference

Secrecy

Secretariat

Secretaries of state

Secretary to the Cabinet. See Clerk of the Privy Council

Sections 91 and 92 (Constitution Act, 1867)

Security Intelligence Review Committee (SIRC)

Security of Information Act (Canada)

Senate

Senior civil servants

Separate schools (parochial, dissentient)

Separation of powers

Separatism

Shadow cabinet

Shared-cost programs

Singh Case (Re Singh and Minister of Employment and Immigration) (1985)

Single-member plurality electoral system

Social Credit party

Social movement organizations

Social Union Framework Agreement (1999)

Socialism

Sovereign, the

Sovereignty-association

Speaker (of the legislature)

Special Operating Agencies (SOAs)

Special status

Speech from the Throne

Spending power

Standing (select, special, joint) committees (of the House and Senate)

Standing Orders

Stare decisis

State, the

Statistics Canada

Statute (Act). 323 Statute of Westminster (U.K., 1931)

Statutory instrument

Subordinate legislation

Sunset clause

Supplementary estimates

Supply bill

Supply period (allotted days; Opposition days)

Supremacy of parliament

Supreme Court of Canada

Surveillance (function of Parliament)

Suspensive veto

T

Tariff (non-tariff barriers)

Task force

Tax abatement and tax points

Tax expenditures

Tax rental agreements (payments)

Territorial governments

Third parties; Third-party advertising

Third parties (political)

Throne Speech (Debate on the...)

Tory

Trade and Commerce power

Transfer payment

Transferable vote (preferential ballot)

Treasury Board

Treasury Board Secretariat (TBS)

Treaty power

Triple-E Senate

Two nations (deux nations)

Two-party system

U

Ultra (intra) vires

Unconditional grants (general-purpose transfer payments)

Unicameral legislature

Union Act, 1840 (U.K.)

Union government

Unitary state (legislative union)

United Farmers of...(Alberta, Manitoba, Ontario) Upper Canada

Upper chamber (house)

Urgent business (emergency debate)

V

Veto

Victoria Charter (1971)

Vote of no confidence (want-of-confidence motion)

Voters list. See Enumeration (of voters)

W

War Measures Act (Canada; emergency powers)

War-crimes legislation (trials)

Wartime Elections Act and Military Voters Act (Canada, 1917)

Wartime Tax Agreements (1941)

Water-tight compartments Doctrine (constitution)

Westminster

Whig (interpretation of Canadian history)

Whip (party)

White paper

White paper on employment and income (1945)

World Trade Organization (WTO)

Writs (election; referendum)