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Table of Contents for
Surviving Incarceration: Inside Canadian Prisons by Rose Ricciardelli


Narrative: Just a Kid: Forever Hurting

Introduction to Federal Corrections in Canada

The Focus: Setting the Stage

Changing Legislation in Corrections

What about Safety?

Chapter One

Narrative: A Life Without Freedom: The Multi-Prison, Multi-Sentence Experience

Correctional Services of Canada

Provincial versus Federal Corrections

Methods: The Men

Understanding the Classification System: Prisoner Classification

Does Prisoner Classification Work?

Understanding the Classification System: Institutional Classification

How I Found the Guys?

The Details

Chapter Two

Narrative: Addiction, Incest: Thirty-Two Years in Prison, Thirty-Six Years of Addiction

Hierarchy: Crime, Sexuality, Masculinity, and Safety

Factor 1. Being Solid: Criminal Convictions

Factor 2. Being Solid: Masculinities

The Oppressor

Presenting Tough

Acting Aggressive


Factor 3. Being Solid: Prison Sex or Sexuality

The Largely Homophobic Environment

Consistently Subordinated Homosexuality?

Being Solid: Heterosexuality

Why Does the Hierarchy Exist?

Chapter Three

Narrative: A Violent Place Where Everybody Has a Story

Violence and Theory: The Prison Atmosphere

Theoretical Understandings

The Current Canada Prison Experience: Understanding and Acknowledging the Violence

The Atmosphere

Maximum-Security Prisons: Controls Within the Institution

High-Medium-Security Prison: Controls Within the Institution

Low-Medium- and Minimum-Security Prisons: Controls Within the Institution

Coercive Controls: Impacting Penal Violence

Remunerative Controls: Impacting Penal Violence

The Need: Balance

Chapter Four

Narrative: A Brother, a Son, a Lover, a Dad, a Man, a Prisoner with Heart

Hard Memories


The Inmate Code

The History of the Code

Why a Code?

What Is the Code?

Never Rat on a Con and Don’t Get Friendly with the Staff

Be Dependable (Not Loyal)

Follow Daily Behaviour Rules or Else!

I Won’t See You, Don’t See Me, and Shut-up Already!

Be Fearless or at Least Act Tough

In the End

Chapter Five

Narrative: A Sex Offender’s Story

The Other Crimes

Public Perceptions

Stigma Theory and Framing

The Sex Offender Stigma

Stigma in Prison: Stigmatized by Other Prisoners

The Stigma of Protective Custody

Painful Consequences: Stigmatized by Other Prisoners

Revelations, Intolerance, and Passing: The Quest to be Solid

Distancing Sex Offenders

Prisoners Exposing Prisoners

Professionals and Paraprofessionals in Corrections

The Role of the Media

Resources: Lacking Supports

The Systemic Sex Offender Stigma

Final Thoughts

Chapter Six

Narrative: Change from Within (It Changed Me)

The Personal Side: Coping, Changing, For Better or Worse

Coping with Incarceration: Trust in Self

Coping with Incarceration: When More is Needed


Prison: Fostering Negativity

Change from Within and Holding on to Yourself

Resources and Programming

Chapter Seven

Narrative: Gang Affiliation, Clearly Not the Way of the Future

Final Words

What Can This Study Not Speak To?

What We Do Know?

Safe Streets and Prisons: Corrections at Work

Industry Growth: For Better or Worse