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Table of Contents for Between a Rock and a Hard Place: A Historical Geography of the Finns in the Sudbury Area by Oiva W. Saarinen

List of Tables, Figures, Maps, Aerial Photograph and Biographies

Acknowledgments

Introduction

I. Finnish Settlement in Canada

Immigration

Distribution

Demographic Characteristics

II. Geographical Pattern of Finnish Settlement in the Sudbury Area

Migration to the Sudbury Area

Distribution

Copper Cliff

Temporary Mining Camps

Company Towns of Garson and Creighton

Sudbury and Environs

Downtown

Donovan

Lockerby

Rural Enclaves

Waters Township

Lorne Township (Beaver Lake)

Louise Township (Whitefish)

Broder Township (Long Lake)

Dill, Cleland, Secord and Burwash Townships (Wanup)

Post-World War II Trends

Lake Panache Recreational Zone

Florida as a Winter Destination

III. The Great Divide

The Legacy of Finland

The Influence of Russia/Soviet Union

The United States Factor

Domestic Factors

Early Factionalism in Copper Cliff

Shift of Radicalism to Sudbury

Socialism and the Labour Movement

Vapaus, the FOC and Communism

The Comintern and the Bolshevization Controversy

The Finnish Crisis

Split with the Co-operative Movement

Communist Trials and Deportation

Karelia-Fever

Sale of Liberty Hall

Government Surveillance

Conservative Countermovement

Finnish State

Finnish National Society of Sudbury and the Central Organization of Loyal Finns in Canada

The Fighting Church

Vapaa Sana

World War II and Its Aftermath

Finnish-Canadian War Effort

Left-Wing Suppression

Canada-Finland Assistance

Finnish Canadian Historical Society

Growth and Consolidation of the Church

Centennial Year and Finland Week

Decline of FOC, COLFC and Vapaus

Finnish Canadian Cultural Federation

Finnish Institutions and the Canadianization Process

IV. Finns in the Workplace

Labour Force (1883–1945)

Transportation

Mining and Construction

Lumbering

Farming

Workers’ Rights and the Labour Movement

Gender Equality in the Labour Force

White-Collar Pursuits

Post-World War II Employment

V. Finnish Cultural Contributions to the Sudbury Area

Sports

Athletic Clubs

Wrestling/Bodybuilding

Cross-Country Skiing

Track and Field

Gymnastics

The Summer Festival Tradition

Performing Arts

The Sauna

Knights and Ladies of Kaleva Organizations

Sudbury Finnish Rest Home Society

Sudbury Suomi Lions Club

Finnish War Veterans (Sudbury)

Finnish Language Schools

Symbolic Ethnicity

VI. Conclusions and Retrospect

Notes

Bibliography

Index