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Table of Contents for
Canadian Social Policy: Issues and Perspectives, 4th edition, edited by Anne Westhues


Preface to the Fourth Edition

Preface to the Third Edition

I. Introduction

Introduction to Part I

Becoming Acquainted with Social Policy | Anne Westhues

II. Policy-Making Processes

Introduction to Part II

Pursing Social Policy Ideals at the International Level: An NGO Perspective | Tim Wichert

The Federal Government and Social Policy at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century: Reflections on Change and Continuity | John English and William R. Young

Human Rights Legislation, Court Rulings, and Social Policy | Ailsa M. Watkinson

Active Citizenship, Social Workers, and Social Policy | Carol Kenny-Scherber

Program and Policy Development from a Holistic Aboriginal Perspective | Malcolm. A. Saulis

Citizen Participation in Social Policy | Joan Wharf Higgins, John Cossom, and Brian Wharf

Evaluating Social Welfare Policies and Programs | Anne Westhues

III. Current Social Policy Issues

Introduction to Part III

Child Poverty and the Canadian Welfare State | Garson Hunter

Back to the Present: Rethinking Risk Assessment in Child Welfare | Marilyn Callahan and Karen Swift

Native Peoples and Child Welfare Practices: Implicating Social Work Education | Barbara Waterfall

Mental Health Policy in Canada | Geoffrey Nelson

Housing and Homelessness | Lea Caragata

Single Motherhood in the Canadian Landscape: Postcards from a Subject | Iara Lessa

Workfare: Ten Years of Pickin on the Poor | Linda Snyder

Toward Inclusion Of Gay And Lesbian People: Social Policy Changes in Relation To Sexual Orientation | Brian O’Neill

Immigration and Refugee Policy in Canada: Past, Present, and Future | Usha George

Universal Health Care: Normative Legacies Adrift | Mike Burke and Susan Silver

Caring and Aging: Exposing the Policy Issues | Sheila Neysmith

Canadians with Disabilities | Peter A. Dunn

IV. Looking to the Future

The Challenges Ahead | Anne Westhues


Subject Index

Name Index


Mike Burke is an associate professor in the Department of Politics and Public Administration at Ryerson University. He has published articles on community modes of health care deliveyr in Canada, the political attitudes of women physicians, the limitations of health promotion research, the policy implications of the social-environmental paradigm in health, and the obstacles academic unions face in promoting collective and progressive identities among their members. He co-edited a book with Colin Mooers and John Shields, entitled Restructuring and resistance: Canadian public policy in an age of global capitalism (2000), in which he examined recent transformations in Canadian health care policy and new trends in labour market inequality in Canada.

Marilyn Callahan is a professor emeritus in the School of Social Work at the University of Victoria. She is currently involved in several research projects including one on risk assessment (with Karen Swift) and another examining how fathering is constructed in child welfare (with Lena Dominelli, Susan Strega, Leslie Brown, and Christopher Walmsley). She has an abiding interest in how child welfare discourses and services affect the lives of children, their mothers, and families and has published widely in this area.

Lea Caragata is an associate professor in the Faculty of Social Work at Wilfrid Laurier University. She teaches social policy, planning, and community development, following extensive experience working with marginal communities, developing social housing, and developing and analyzing public policy. Current research includes work in the areas of the social construction of knowledge, civil society, and international social work practice.

John Cossom is professor emeritus in the School of Social Work at the University of Victoria. His practice was in child welfare, family services, and corrections. He also taught at Wilfrid Laurier University and the Universities of Waterloo and Regina.

Peter A. Dunn is an associate professor in the Faculty of Social Work at Wilfrid Laurier University. His research interests include disability policies, poverty concerns, gender issues, and alternative interventions. He has been involved in disability research dealing with barrier-free housing, issues confronting seniors with disabilities, the development of government independent living policies, the impact of independent living and resource centres, and the empowerment of adults with developmental disabilities.

John English holds a doctorate from Harvard University and is a senior professor of history and political science at the University of Waterloo. He served as member of Parliament for Kitchener between 1993 and 1997. Afterward, he served as a Special Ambassador for Landmines and as a Special Envoy for the election of Canada to the Security Council. He has also served as president of the Canadian Institute of Internal Affairs, and is currently the executive director of the Centre for International Governance Innovation, a think tank devoted to the study of international affairs.

Usha George is a professor and dean of the Faculty of Community Services at Ryerson University. Her scholarship focuses on social work with diverse communities, and her research interests are in the areas of newcomer settlement and adaptation, organization and delivery of settlement services, and community work with marginalized communities. She has completed research projects on the settlement and adaptation issues of various immigrant communities in Ontario. Her interests also include international social work, and she is currently involved in research projects in India.

Garson Hunter is an associate professor of Social Work at the University of Regina. He has taught courses in direct social work practice, social policy, research metohds, and field education, and has published on welfare and child poverty. Currently he is researching with intravenous drug users around issues of poverty and harm reduction strategies.

Carol Kenny-Scherber is a senior policy adviser with the Ontario government who has worked in five different ministries during the twenty-seven years of her social work career. The focus of most of her work has been on education, training, and employment policy.

Iara Lessa is an associate professor at the Ryerson University School of Social Work. Her research interests are broadly focused on social policy, gender, and methodology. In the past, her research activities have explored the effects of contemporary Canadian policy on the lives and situations of certain groups such as immigrants and single mothers. She is currently participating in the development of various activities and tools to increase gender equity in Brazil’s programs addressing Occupational Health and Safety and Food Security.

Geoffrey Nelson, a community psychologist, is professor of psychology at Wilfrid Laurier University. He served as the senior editor of the Canadian Journal for Community Mental Health, and together with the Canadian Mental Health Association-Waterloo Region Branch, he received the Harry V. McNeill Award for Innovation in Community Mental Health from the American Psychological Foundation in 1999.

Brian O’Neill obtained his MSW from Carleton University in 1971, and subsequently worked in child welfare management in Toronto until 1988. He received his PhD from Wilfrid Laurier University in 1994, after conducting a study of Canadian social work education from the standpoint of gay men. He is currently a faculty member at the University of British COlumbia School of Social Work and Family Studies in Vancouver, where he teaches interprofessional practice in relation to HIV/AIDS, research design, and social service management. His current research focuses primarily on issues in social service policy and management for gay men and lesbians.

Malcolm A. Saulis was born on the Tobique Indian reserve. He is a Malicite Indian of the Negoot-gook tribe. He was educated at St. Thomas University in Fredericton, New Brunswick, where he received a BA Honours degree in Psychology. He sought guidance from his elders to determine where he should put his efforts to better the reality of First Nations peoples, and was told to work in making communities better places to live. He subsequently dedicated his life to making the reality of First Nations better, primarily through community-based university educational processes. He has helped communities develop programs, services, and institutions in health, child welfare, restorative justice, education, and social policy. He has consulted with government departments on various social development areas. He is a trained Traditional Circle keeper and works extensively in holistic healing processes.

Susan Silver is an associate professor in the School of Social Work at Ryerson University. She has a PhD in social work from Bryn Mawr College, Philadelphia and an MSW from the University of Toronto. She teaches research, social work practice, and social policy. She has conducted a number of research studies exploring issues of access and inclusion in relation to health care, labour markets, and income security policy. She has just completed a national participatory action research project examining the experiences of participants attending community-based family support programs.

Linda Snyder is an associate professor in the School of Social Work at Renison College, University of Waterloo. Her research focuses on means of addressing poverty and her particular interests include women’s employment initiatives and comparison of Canadian and Latin American endeavours. Prior to her doctoral studies, Linda held policy and program administration positions in Waterloo Region’s Social Services Department.

Karen Swift is an associate professor in the School of Social Work at York University. She is the author of Manufacturing “Bad Mothers”: A Critical Perspective on Child Neglect, as well as numerous articles and book chapters on child welfare issues, especially as they relate to women.

Barbara Waterfall (White Buffalo Woman, Crane Clan) is an Anishnabe-Kwe Métis. She has twenty-one years of experience working in the human services field. She became a faculty member of the Native Human Services Program at Laurentian University in 1995 and accepted a position in the Faculty of Social Work at Wilfrid Laurier University in 2002. She presently is a faculty member in the First Nations and Aboriginal Counselling Degree Program at Brandon University. Barbara has a BA from St. Thomas University, an MSW from Carleton University, and is a doctoral candidate in the Sociology and Equity Studies Department at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education at the University of Toronto. Her doctoral dissertation addresses the topic of “Decolonizing Native Social Work Education.” Her other research interests are in the areas of anti-colonial practice, Anishnabec-centred therapy (including Anishnabec music therapy), and the inclusion of spirituality in practice.

Ailsa Watkinson is an associate professor with the Faculty of Social Work at the University of Regina in Saskatoon. Her research interests, education, and work experience are in the area of human rights. Ailsa recently co-edited a book entitled Contesting Fundamentalisms. She is the author of Education, student rights and the charter, and she co-edited two other books on systemic violence. She has published a number of articles on such topics as sexual harrassment, women’s and children’s equality rights, employment equity, globalization, the Charter as policy advocate, religion in public spaces, and the administration of equality rights.

Anne Westhues is a professor in the Faculty of Social Work at Wilfrid Laurier University where she teaches research, social policy, and community practice. Her research interests include evaluation of policy and practice, social and strategic planning, and evidence-based practice. Her publications include articles on adoption (international adoption, disclosure, disruption, and reunions), family violence (elder abuse and prevention of wife assault), and planning (conceptualizations of social planning, human resources study of the profession of social work). Her current research is on mental health and culture and immigrant youth.

Brian Wharf is professor emeritus at the University of Victoria. During his career at this university, he was director of the School of Social Work, dean of the Faculty of Human and Social Development, professor in the graduate multidisciplinary program focused on connecting policy and practice, and acting director of the School of Public Administration. His research interests continue to focus on connecting policy and practice and on community and child welfare. The focus is reflected in two recent books: Community work approaches to child welfare (Broadview Press, 2002) and Connecting policy to practice, 2nd ed. (Oxford University Press, 2004), with Brad McKenzie.

Joan Wharf Higgins is an associate professor in the School of Physical Education and a Canada Research Chair in Health and Society at the University of Victoria. She has degrees in Leisure Studies (BA), Adult Health and Fitness (MA), and Health Promotion (PhD). Joan’s research and teaching interests include planning and evaluation, social marketing, community and population health, and participatory action research methodologies.

Tim Wichert is currently a lawyer with the firm of Jackman and Associates in Toronto, focusing on refugees, immigration, and human rights. He spent seven years with the Mennonite Central Committee (MCC) in Nairobi, Geneva, and New York, and another six years as refugee programme coordinator for MCC Canada. While in Geneva, he was seconded by MCC to the Quaker United Nations Office, focusing on refugees and human rights within the UN system. He obtained his law degree from Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario, in 1984.

William R. Young received his PhD in history from the University of British Columbia. Since then he has taught at several universities (Simon Fraser, York, McGill), worked on the memoirs of Paul Martin, and since 1987 has worked in the Parliamentary Research Branch. He is currently a senior analyst with general responsibilities in the area of social policy and has served as acting director of the Political and Social Affairs Division. He has provided resaerch assistance to many committees of Parliament (currently the Standing Committee on Human Resources Development and its subcommittees on people with disabilities and children).